Physical Playtime With Dads Is Big Boost to Kids Development, Study Says

Dad and Child Physical Play
(Getty/Maskot)

Since the dawn of time, dads have always been a little more physical while playing with their kids. And now science says that’s a good thing. According to a new study, kids whose dads spend time playing with them at an early age find it easier to control their behavior and emotions when they get older.

This sounds like a study that was commissioned by two dads and involved them saying “we’re the best, right?” over and over, but actual scientists thew down some science. The study was backed by academic heavyweights Cambridge University and the LEGO Foundation.

Basically, what it boils down to is kids who enjoy “high-quality” playtime with dads are less likely to display hyperactivity, emotional or behavioral difficulties. They can better control their aggression and handle arguments at school better too.

The science says dads play more physical with kids (ticking, chasing games, piggyback rides, etc.), and this helps them learn how to control their feelings and behavior. Basically, dads rule.

One of the authors of the study said physical play creates fun situations where kids have to apply self-regulation.

“It’s a safe environment where kids can practice how to respond.”

Let this stand as a definitive take that dads are doing it right (of course, moms can also engage in physical play with kids, the research just pointed to this being more common with dads).

So, next time you are ruthlessly chasing your two-year-old around the house, or tickling your toddler until they are laughing so hard they can barely breathe, remember science says you are doing it right.

Travis Kelce’s First Purchase After New Contract Was to Help Kids

Travis Kelce STEM
(Twitter/tkelce)

NFL careers are short, and most star players are lucky to sign one big contract. Kansas City superstar tight end Travis Kelce just signed his, a monster extension with the Super Bowl champs. And his first purchase after securing his future? A building for inner-city K.C. kids to have a safe place to study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

You may remember Kelce from dominating on your fantasy football team or from the sweet moment with his dad after winning a Super Bowl last year. And we know Kansas City takes care of their stars, as they made QB Patrick Mahomes the highest-paid player in the NFL. Kelce’s deal isn’t quite as rich, but is still a big deal for a tight end, as he got four years and $57 million. And his first move after getting paid shows you why he’s beloved every place he’s played.


He announced on twitter and on his “87 & Running” Foundation website that he’s purchasing a building that will be the future home of the “Ignition Lab: Powered by 87 & Running” -which he described as a co-working space where the teens will have “the support, resources, and opportunity to explore careers in STEM, launch their own entrepreneurial ventures and gain real-world experience.”

Kelce has always been a player focused on his community and giving back. He started the nonprofit because he wanted to help disadvantaged kids, and knew many kids didn’t have the same opportunities he had growing up.

He said the amazing kids he’s seen grow up in the inner-city of Kansas City over the past 7 years are getting older in a “world that doesn’t always have their back.” Kelce’s letter added that “where you live, the situation you were born into, or the color of your skin should have no impact on the dreams you dream. And it’s a beautiful thing when a kid’s dream comes true.”

It’s always inspiring to see athletes giving back to their community, but even more so when you can tell it’s a real passion and mission for them. Kelce’s commitment to kids in inner-city K.C. will make a real difference, which makes his superstar contract easier to celebrate, even if you’re not a Chiefs fan.

Government Creates Task Force to Monitor Potential Alien Encounters

UFO Navy Jets
(Department of Defense)

In any other year, the government’s acknowledgment that they have footage of unidentified aircraft that may or may not be extraterrestrial in nature would be the biggest story of the year.

In 2020, it’s barely been noticed. But unlike murder hornets, we may be hearing more about this story as time goes on.

Back in April, video was released of three videos taken by US Navy pilots showcasing objects acting erratically in the sky, and flying in patterns that don’t make sense. They’ve been classified as UAPs – unidentified aerial phenomena – and even though the public may not be paying much attention, the government is. So much so that the Pentagon has created a task force to monitor these things and, presumably, to help gather and analyze information surrounding any such sightings.

On August 4th, Defense Secretary David Norquist announced the formation of the Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force (UAPTF).

“The Department of Defense established the UAPTF to improve its understanding of, and gain insight into, the nature and origins of UAPs. The mission of the task force is to detect, analyze and catalog UAPs that could potentially pose a threat to US national security,” the Pentagon said in a statement.

The formation of the task force comes on the heels of the Senate requiring the secretary of defense and director of national intelligence to prepare a public report detailing what they’ve learned about these UAPs. Hopefully, they’ve already checked out the Berkshire UFO episode of the new Unsolved Mysteries on Netflix!

This is the first time the United States government has created – or admitted its created – a team to investigate potential alien contact, and it makes sense that it’s happening in 2020. Stay tuned for news that the Navy has discovered Atlantis!

NASA Dads Killed Time After SpaceX Splashdown by Making Prank Calls

NASA Dads Kill Time After SpaceX Splashdown by Making Prank Calls
(YouTube/AmericaSpace Twitter/Enterprise_Flt)

Imagine you’ve spent the last two months in space. You made history by being the first astronaut to travel to the International Space Station in a commercially-built spacecraft, and you’re finally back on Earth counting down the seconds until you can see your family. You’re bobbing up and down in the Gulf of Mexico after a successful splashdown, and the only thing left for you to do is kill time while the crew inspects your capsule. What do you do with that time? This was a question astronauts Robert L. Behnken and Douglas G. Hurley faced on Sunday as they became the first astronauts to travel to the International Space Station and back on SpaceX’s Crew Dragon Capsule. The choice was pretty easy for these dads – may as well make some prank calls.

During a Houston welcome-home ceremony, Hurley recalled, “Five hours ago, we were in a spaceship, bobbing around, making prank satellite phone calls to whoever we could get ahold of. Which was kind of fun, by the way,”

You don’t have to take Hurley’s word for it. Several people who were on the receiving end of the pair’s prank calls stepped forward to back his story. One of those people was Anthony Vareha, NASA’s 91st flight director. He stated on Twitter, “I received one of these calls at the flight director console. It started with an opening line like ‘Hi it’s Doug and Bob and we’re in the ocean.’ I think my response was ‘Yeah, I can see that.’”

Megan McArthur, a NASA astronaut, and Behnken’s wife was another recipient of the unexpected phone call. She stated, “On my phone it said ‘Spam Risk’. Glad I answered anyway!” which is pretty unfair, considering how many times I’ve answered a “spam risk” call and never once has it been from an astronaut.

After nine weeks in space, these NASA dads fully deserved to blow off some steam. Apparently, prank calls truly are the universal time-wasters. Next time you’re about to send a “spam risk” call to voicemail, maybe do a quick check to see what the people at NASA are up to that day.

NASA Dads’ SpaceX Mission Was a Splashing Success

NASA Dads’ SpaceX Mission Was a Splashing Success
(Twitter/NASA)

If ever there was a time to take a vacation from Earth, now would be ideal. For nearly two months, astronauts and dads Robert L. Behnken and Douglas G. Hurley have been soaking up the atmosphere in the International Space station after being the first astronauts in history to travel to space in a commercially-built capsule. NASA hired both Boeing and SpaceX to build spacecrafts that can transport astronauts between Earth and the International space station, and SpaceX’s first mission was a success.

Not only was SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule the first privately-built capsule NASA sent to orbit, but it was the first time since 1975 that any American space crew had utilized a water landing, otherwise known as a splashdown. NASA and SpaceX staff weren’t the only ones counting down the minutes until the Dragon Endeavour’s return.

“I’m happy you went into space, but I’m even happier that you’re coming back home,” Hurley’s son Jack told him early Sunday morning.

“Wake up, wake up, wake up, wake up, Daddy, wake up! Don’t worry, you can sleep in tomorrow. Hurry home so we can go get my dog!” Behnken’s son Theo exclaimed, which just goes to show that if you promise your kid a dog, even going to space for a while isn’t going to make them forget.

On Sunday, after a 21-hour voyage from the International Space Station, the two Astronaut dads splashed down safely in the Gulf of Mexico. The landing went mostly as planned, with the capsule deploying four large parachutes to slow its descent to 15 miles per hour for landing. There was a small delay caused by toxic nitrogen tetroxide fumes around the exterior of the capsule, which was caused by one of the spacecraft’s fuels – fortunately, the crew was able to clean the fuel tanks without much trouble. The capsule was pulled from the water by a crane and set down on a boat nearby where staff was waiting to help the astronauts out of the spacecraft.

NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine was thrilled by the success of the mission. He explained that the Crew Dragon endeavor signified “a new era of human spaceflight where NASA is no longer the purchaser, owner and operator of all the hardware. We are going to be a customer, one customer of many customers in a very robust commercial marketplace for human spaceflight to low Earth orbit.”

That’s one small step for dads, one giant leap for dadkind.

UFO Watch: Pentagon Reportedly Recovered “Off-World Vehicles”

UFO Navy Jets
(Department of Defense)

UFOs were once the territory of conspiracy theorists, and now the discussion is jumping into the mainstream. That’s an enormous development in and of itself. It’s no longer left to weird shows overnight on the History Channel, or to aging talk radio shows. After a story in the New York Times last week, it’s time to get more serious about UFOs.

The New York Times report confirms the government has an active task force studying UFO sightings and reports. The task force is part of the Office of Naval Intelligence and will begin making public reports on “at least some of its findings” twice per year.

The biggest bombshell from the Times story, however, was a quote from an astrophysicist working for a defense contractor. Eric Davis, a former consultant for the Pentagon’s original UFO task force, said he briefed the Department of Defense earlier this year about retrieving “materials from off-world vehicles not made on this earth.”

“Off-world vehicles” is the money phrase that got people excited recently, and Davis said he has also given classified briefings to other government representatives about the recovered materials. 10 years ago, this would be in the news cycle for days. Now, because it’s 2020, some are basically taking the “show me a little green guy or gtfo” approach. But it is cool (and maybe kinda scary) that the government is ramping up its investigation and research into UFOs.

At the same time, it’s not all that crazy either, as there’s been a steady drip of classified info over the past few years, just enough tantalizing crumbs to keep people locked into the topic. Most notably was the Navy officially releasing videos that had previously leaked, of Navy aircraft encountering bizarre unknown flying objects. The pilots appear to be fairly unnerved in the videos, which were officially confirmed as real by the Navy.

With the trends of 2020 being what they are, it would seem sort of fitting to get a real blockbuster UFO breakthrough later this year.

“Darth Vader” Sea Cockroach Will Cameo in Your 2020 Nightmares

Vader Sea Cockroach
(YouTube/NYOOOZ TV/Looper)

You know what? I think we’re done here. 2020, you win. We’ve had murder hornets, a freaking pandemic, and now you’re really going to throw a 14-legged Darth-Vader-Looking ocean monster in the mix? No thanks, I’ll take that safe word now.

While this terrifying creature was first discovered in 2018, the species was only recently named and cataloged. Researchers for the National University of Singapore recently collected 12,000 sea creatures from 63 sites, in a widespread survey led by Peter Ng. The researchers partnered with the Indonesian Institute of Sciences to poke and prod and drill and scrape in the depths of the ocean, and if you’ve ever seen Finding Nemo, you’re well aware that you’re about to encounter some serious nightmare fuel.

Among the over 800 different species that were collected by Ng and his team were 12 species that had never before been recorded. The team went as deep as 1.3 miles below sea level to collect creatures which, let’s be honest, should probably have been left alone to haunt the ocean (leaving us blissfully oblivious to their existence). Among the sea demons, the team collected was none other than the Bathynomus raksasa. Sounds less scary when you call it by its formal name, right? It’s like calling the Green Goblin Norman Osborn – nobody named Norman can possibly be THAT terrifying, right? Well, turns out he was, and so is the Bathynomus raksasa.

Darth Vader Cockroach
(YouTube/NYOOOZ TV)

The Bathynomus raksasa was nicknamed the Darth Vader Cockroach (which in itself is an alarming concept) because of its haunting resemblance to the notorious Star Wars villain. The shape of this giant cockroach’s head along with its oddly-angled, beady little eyes make it look like it’s doing some sort of budget Darth Vader cosplay. If his whole aesthetic wasn’t enough to give you chills, these sea cockroaches can grow to a staggering 20 inches long.

Cahyo Rahmadi of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences told BBC that “The discovery of new species is a great achievement for a taxonomist. especially spectacular species in terms of size and even the ecosystem where the species is found.”

You say “spectacular,” we’ll go with “no thanks.” Seriously, good luck unseeing this one.

Mythbusters Co-Host Grant Imahara Dies Tragically at Age 49

Grant Imahara
(Getty Images/Albert L. Ortega)

He was an electric engineer and a roboticist, but the thing Grant Imahara will be remembered most for is as a co-host of the beloved science show “Mythbusters.” Imahara’s life was tragically cut short Monday by a brain aneurism at the age of 49.

Imahara also hosted a “Mythbusters” spin-off show for Netflix called “White Rabbit Project” that ran for 10 episodes. There’s no question he packed a lot into his time, as prior to his TV career he worked for Lucasfilm in the THX and Industrial Light and Magic divisions.

According to the Hollywood Reporter, Imahara’s career involved working on some of the ‘most iconic characters in screen history’, ranging from R2D2 (he worked on all three Star Wars prequels) and the Energizer Bunny. On Mythbusters, he did everything from skydiving to driving stunt cars.

Everyone that worked with him was flooding social media with tributes.

Mythbusters co-host Adam Savage said on Twitter working with Grant was so much fun.

“I’m at a loss…Grant was truly a brilliant engineer, artist, and performer, but also just such a generous, easygoing, and gentle PERSON.”

His other co-hosts also posted tributes, and other celebrities echoed the gravity of the loss.

A spokesperson for Discovery said they were heartbroken about the news.

“He was an important part of our Discovery family and a really wonderful man. Our thoughts and prayers go out to his family.”

Man Paraglides While Sitting on the Sofa Watching TV

(YouTube/ Hasan Kaval)

Ingenuity has been off the charts in recent months. From Nintendo Switch TV frames to dinosaur jungle gyms, there’s never been a better time to roll up your sleeves, hunker down in the garage, and build something that until then had only existed in your imagination.

Meet Hasan Kaval from Izmir, Turkey, the da Vinci of our time.

(YouTube/ Hasan Kaval)

By now we’ve all surely grown bored with our couches. Hasan, however, has literally taken that lethargy to new heights by turning his sofa into a paraglider, complete with a footstool, lamp, and working TV.

Here you can see some fellas securing the bottom with a custom metal frame.

(9GAG/ Hasan Kaval)

Hasan paraglides professionally, working as a pilot and instructor. But lately, you can catch him sailing above the Fethiye district in Southwest Turkey on his cherry-red sofa chair, slippers on, a bag of chips and pop in hand, watching some Tom & Jerry.

To initiate flight he just sort of… has his buddies push him off a really high up ledge. It’s bananas. You can watch the couch-glider in action in this video from his YouTube channel.

So rad. Kind of a bummer that “couch surfing” is already a much lamer thing.

15+ Kids’ Science Experiments For Long, Boring Weekends Inside

kids science experiments
(Getty/DragonImages)

There’s one time of the school year that every parent dreads: Science Fair Season. No, Mrs. Norris, we don’t want to spend $60 on a project board and all the supplies needed to test paper towel absorbency or how seeds grow. Please, Vice Principal Flemmings, can’t we just volunteer to chaperone the next two years of dances, instead? Science Fair projects rarely teach your kids anything (except all the “emergency words” dad can say in one sentence) and cause an absurd amount of stress. Science is fun! But science fair projects don’t illustrate that point at all. If you want to instill a love of science in your kids that will stand the test of 9th-grade biology and a million years worth of science projects, you’re going to need to do some work. The easiest way? Have fun doing science experiments and science projects when they’re not 50 percent of the grade and due tomorrow at 8 a.m. Here are a few we love that you can try at home on the weekends.

1. Crystal Garden

Dude, did you know you can grow crystals from salt? This site walks you through the super fun process.

2. DIY Yogurt

Would we eat this science experiment yogurt? Hard no. But, our kids are far more adventurous.

3. Eggs In Vinegar Experiment

Vinegar causes all kinds of strange reactions when it’s mixed with other foods and chemicals. This cool vinegar-based science experiment leaves you with something that can best be described as “alien eggs.”

4. Magic Milk

The smell of milk is disgusting. Watching your littlest kids freak over blending colors is worth it.

5. Build A Submarine

Explaining buoyancy isn’t easy. This simple little submarine build will help do the trick. Because the end result offers something for your kids to play with, they’ll like it even more.

6. The Science Behind A Lava Lamp

Are lava lamps still a thing? They were just barely cool when we were kids — their hayday happened when our parents were in their prime. They still sell them at Spencer’s, though, so most kids probably have a vague idea of what they are. How about a science experiment to explain how they work and make your own version?

7. Simple Spinning Motor

Want to make your kids think their dad is pretty much magical? Build a simple motor and turn it into a dancing person or monster with just a little bit of decoration.

8. DIY Hovercraft Science

We were promised hovercrafts by now. Why don’t we have them? After all, they’re apparently very easy to make.

9. Inflate A Balloon With Pantry Items

While it’s probably not feasible to rely on vinegar and baking soda when blowing up balloons for your daughter’s birthday party, it might be fun to do once or twice. You know… for the sake of science.

10. Pantry-Made Snow Fluff

Snow Fluff is one of the messier science experiments. But, let’s be honest, you’re going to “let” the wife clean up all of this mess, anyway. (Just kidding. Clean up after yourself, Rand!)

11. Tornado In A Bottle

You’ve made a tornado in a bottle before. You may not remember exactly how it’s done, given that it was about 20-30 years ago. But, you’ve definitely done it and you probably remember just how cool it is.

12. Kaleidoscope Fun

Got a little fairy princess fluttering around your home? Add even more color to her world by building a kaleidoscope together.

13. Orange Fizzy Chemical Reaction

Oranges are acidic! If you mix their juice with the right pantry staple, you can create a fun, fizzy reaction.

14. Density Tower

What’s cooler than a magic potion? Nothing, Dad. Absolutely nothing. Do a little physics and learn about density while playing with “potions.”

15. Simple Circuit

It took Benjamin Franklin years to discover electricity. From there, it took even longer to figure out how to harness and utilize it. Now that we know the magic, though, it’s actually pretty easy to make a simple circuit all on our own… no matter how dumb the wife says we are.

16. Make Your Own Playdough

Need another science experiment for your littlest kid? Help them make their own playdough!

17. Baking Soda Volcano

This may be a classic but it’s all still new to our kids. Luckily, this experiment will require only the most basic supplies like dish soap, food coloring, baking soda, and vinegar.

18. Apple Oxidation

This is a super simple and kid-favorite experiment. We all know that peeled apples react to oxygen by turning brown. Experiment to see how different apple slices will react when coated with water, milk, lemon juice, and vinegar.

Take a Break From Your News Feed to Enjoy Toto’s “Africa” on Tesla Coils

Africa by Toto on Tesla Coils
(YouTube / Franzoli Electronics / Columbia Records)

“Africa” may very well be the rare Perfect Song. From its infectious melody to its layered harmonies to that one part that goes DO-DO DAH-DO DAH-DO DAH-DO DO DO, Toto’s 1981 banger has always transcended both generation and border. It’s a masterpiece by every definition of the term.

As such, folks always go above and beyond when covering it. We’ve heard Perpetuum Jazzile, a vocal group from Slovenia, whip up this astounding version complete with manmade thunderstorm sound effects.

We’ve heard it interpreted by metalheads.

We’ve even heard Weezer and Weird Al team up to give it a go.

Well, all those covers can step aside, because the Franzoli Electronics YouTube channel has released what may very well be the crown jewel of “Africa” covers. What makes this one stand out from the rest? This one’s getting played on a set of Tesla coils.

And how, pray tell, does one play music on a Tesla coil? Here’s an explanation offered in the YouTube video description:

“The main loud music really comes from the tesla coil sparks. They are literally playing the music due to the programmed phase, pulse width and firing frequency! So, there are no speakers, no audio / video special effects. It looks even better in person and sounds almost the same, just without the beat / percussion backing track.”

Sound too gnarly to be true? Watch for yourself!

Insanely cool. Click here to check out Franzoli Electronics’ other covers, including a rendition of “Bohemian Rhapsody” that’ll certainly make you question if this is in fact real life.

SpaceX Is Launching a Shuttle at 3:22 ET! Here’s How to Watch

SpaceX Launch
(YouTube/The Museum of Flight)

Update 5/30: Wednesday’s SpaceX launch was delayed due to stormy weather, so it was moved to today, at 3:22pm ET. Saturday afternoon is the next best window for the shuttle to launch on the proper trajectory to arrive at the International Space Station. Unfortunately, the forecast for today’s launch is also less than ideal, with a 50/50 chance for rain and clouds instead of the clear skies needed for a successful launch.

If it is delayed again today, the astronauts will aim for a Sunday launch at 3pm. When it finally does blast off, you can watch via one of the live streams below!

***

When I was a kid in the 80s, space shuttle launches were must-see TV. They were big deals, for everyone, not just kids, and everyone stopped what they were doing to see us blast people into outer space.

They kind of lost their luster after the Challenger explosion, and NASA slowly began ramping them down in general. Nowadays they just don’t happen, and when they do, there’s nowhere near as much excitement. NASA last flew a shuttle in 2011. But over the past few years, people have started to grow more interested as private companies start making forays into space travel, the most prominent of which is Elon Musk’s SpaceX company.

SpaceX is back it. Today, at 4:33 ET, the Demo-2, manned by NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley, is set to launch on a voyage to the international space station. This is the first time SpaceX is using NASA astronauts, the first time NASA astronauts have flown to space commercially, and the first time Americans will enter space from America since the end of the space shuttle program nearly a decade ago.

But the window is tight. If there’s any delay in the launch, even by a minute, they’ll miss their window to get on the right trajectory toward the ISS and will have to try again on Saturday or Sunday.

Hopefully, everything will go smoothly, and we can start getting excited about space travel again!

“We have this moment in time where we can unite people again,” Jim Bridenstine, NASA’s administrator, said during a press briefing before launch. “The whole world is going to be watching this.”

There are a variety of ways to watch the launch, as listed by Entrepreneur magazine:

NASA TV

SpaceX

National Geographic and ABC Live

The Museum of Flight


And here’s a few recaps to whet your appetite:

American Museum of Natural History

Discovery and Science Channel

Sorry, but Scientists Didn’t Actually Discover a Parallel Universe

parallel universe discovered
(Getty/manjik)

Update:

It seems rumors of an alternate universe may have been slightly exaggerated.

After the insane idea made the rounds on the internet, several publications have stepped up to clarify that the “parallel universe” theory is only one of several hypotheses for the strange test results scientists encountered during experiments in Antarctica.

From USA Today:

It is misleading to say that NASA has found a parallel universe. While it is true that the ANITA observations may prompt a revision of the Standard Model, it is false to claim that the existence of a parallel universe is the explanation for those observations. The studies referenced in several viral articles do not claim that a parallel universe with reverse physics was discovered either. While it is possible that our universe has a parallel “antiverse,” that is far from the clear explanation for the abnormal neutrinos.

2020 is wild, but it’s not “alternative universe” wild. Yet. If you were planning on escaping to

***

2020 has been weird AF.

There’s a global pandemic, there are murder hornets, the government released footage of UFOs, the Snyder cut is real, Jonah Hill is more foul-mouthed than Samuel L. Jackson. Things are just crazy. But they could be worse. We could live in an alternate universe where time moves backwards. BECAUSE APPARENTLY THAT’S A THING NOW TOO.

Yesterday a story started circulating about the existence of a parallel universe and somehow this story didn’t originate on The Onion. No, it started in New Scientist with an article titled: We may have spotted a parallel universe going backwards in time.

The subtitle reads: Strange particles observed by an experiment in Antarctica could be evidence of an alternative reality where everything is upside down.

And now if you’ll excuse me I have to go lie down.

Another article published back in January first sounded the alarm. That one is entitled Strange particles found in Antarctica cannot be explained by physics. So THAT’S good!

I won’t lie, I’m not a scientist, and reading these articles is not easy. The descriptions of the incident and subsequent experiments that detailed why scientists are leaning towards the ‘parallel universe’ explanation broke my brain. Suffice it to say that scientists were baffled by what they were seeing. They’d been using a balloon equipped with antennas meant to detect high-energy particles arriving from space but were confused when one such signal seemed to be exploding upwards out of the ground instead.

It seems their best hypothesis at this point is the parallel universe theory. This universe is described as “a topsy-turvy universe created in the same big bang as our own and existing in parallel with it. In this mirror world, positive is negative, left is right, and time runs backwards.”

This is a bunch of scientists’ BEST idea for what is happening right now.

So yeah, 2020 is wild. But not as wild as it could be because apparently we could be in some upside-down version of earth where COVID-19 is actually making people healthier, they wear hats on their feet, and hamburgers eat people!

Look, I already told you I’m not a scientist.